Council, M.L., Gardner, J.M., Helms, C., Liu, Y., Cornelius, L.A., Bowcock, A.M. Contribution of genetic factors for melanoma susceptibility in sporadic US melanoma patients. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18(5):485-7.
The risks of developing malignant melanoma (MM) include ultraviolet irradiation and genetic factors. To examine the contribution of rare and common variation within known MM genes in sporadic US MM patients, coding regions of known MM susceptibility genes [cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), cyclin-dependent kinase 4, melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and tyrosinase (TYR)] were resequenced in 109-135 MM cases. The significance of variants was examined by comparing their frequencies in 390 cancer-free controls. Potential deleterious mutations in CDKN2A were found in two patients and two others had variants of unknown significance. Cases were more likely than controls to harbour the MC1R'R' variants known or predicted to alter its function (P = 0.002), particularly the R160W variant (P = 0.0035). The associated TYR R402Q variant (rs1126809*A) was found in 29% of cases, similar to what has been described previously. One MM patient with a family history of MM, who had developed other skin cancers, was homozygous for a novel TYR variant (P406L) of unknown significance. Hence, rare variants in TYR may be important risk factors for skin cancer.