Wang GD, Wang XY, Hu H, Fang XC, Liu S, Gao N, Xia Y (2006) Platelet-activating factor in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 291(5): G928-G937. PMID: 17030900
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a proinflammatory mediator that may influence neuronal activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR were used to study the action of PAF and the expression of PAF receptor (PAFR) in the ENS. PAFR immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed by 6.9% of the neurons in the myenteric plexus and 14.5% of the neurons in the submucosal plexus in all segments of the guinea pig intestinal tract as determined by double staining with anti-human neuronal protein antibody. PAFR IR was found in 6.1% of the neurons with IR for calbindin, 35.8% of the neurons with IR for neuropeptide Y (NPY), 30.6% of the neurons with IR for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and 1.96% of the neurons with IR for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the submucosal plexus. PAFR IR was also found in 1.5% of the neurons with IR for calbindin, 51.1% of the neurons with IR for NPY, and 32.9% of the neurons with IR for ChAT in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, exposure to PAF (200-600 nM) evoked depolarizing responses (8.2 +/- 3.8 mV) in 12.4% of the neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and uniaxonal morphology and in 12.5% of the neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology, whereas in the myenteric preparations, depolarizing responses were elicited by a similar concentration of PAF in 9.5% of the neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and uniaxonal morphology and in 12.0% of the neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology. The results suggest that subgroups of secreto- and musculomotor neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses express PAFR. Coexpression of PAFR IR with ChAT IR in the myenteric plexus and ChAT IR and VIP IR in the submucosal plexus suggests that PAF, after release in the inflamed bowel, might act to elevate the excitability of submucosal secretomotor and myenteric musculomotor neurons. Enhanced excitability of motor neurons might lead to a state of neurogenic secretory diarrhea.